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September 2008 Process Industry Practices Civil PIP CVE02350 Roadway Design Guide PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICESIn an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice. This Practice is subject to revision at any time. © Process Industry Practices PIP, Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane R4500, Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP. PRINTING HISTORY September 2008 Issued Not printed with State funds September 2008 Process Industry Practices Civil PIP CVE02350 Roadway Design Guide Table of Contents1. Introduction.3 1.1 Purpose 3 1.2 Scope. 3 2. References 3 2.1 Process Industry Practices 3 2.2 Industry Guides and Standards . 3 3. Definitions.4 4. Roadway Classifications .5 4.1 General 5 4.2 Primary Roadways. 5 4.3 Secondary Roadways 6 4.4 Tertiary Roadways. 6 4.5 Construction and Heavy Haul Roadways 6 5. General Design Considerations 7 5.1 Right-of-Way 7 5.2 Access to Public Roadways. 7 5.3 Materials. 9 5.4 Climate. 9 5.5 Traffic Loading . 10 6. Layout and Traffic Control.10 6.1 General 10 6.2 Traffic Flow. 10 6.3 Plant Roadway Turning/Layout/Grades 10 6.4 Vertical Alignment 13 6.5 Horizontal and Vertical Clearances. 14 6.6 Guardrails and/or Guard Posts 14 6.7 Pavement Marking/Signage. 14 7. Paving/Roadway Design 15 7.1 Paving System Selection . 15 7.2 Flexible Pavement . 16 7.3 Rigid Paving. 24 7.4 Alternative Surface Treatment for Vehicle Traffic Area 26 7.5 Paving Over Low-Strength Soils 28 8. Drainage Considerations. 29 8.1 Roadway Drainage 29 8.2 Culverts 29 8.3 Ditches . 31 8.4 Curbs, Gutters and Inlets. 32 8.5 Headwalls 33 8.6 Pipe Crushing Strength 33 8.7 Pipe Loading 35 9. Crossings 39 9.1 Railroad Crossings. 39 9.2 Pipeline Crossings . 39 10. Typical Details 40 Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 40 September 2008 Drawings CVE02350-01 – Typical Roadway Sections at Cut and Fill CVE02350-02 – Guard Rail Assembly CVE02350-03 – Guard Rail Details CVE02350-04 – Guard Posts CVE02350-05 – Headwalls CVE02350-06 – Headwalls with Wing Walls CVE02350-07 – Typical Roadway Clearance Envelope CVE02350-08 – Roadway Contraction Joint CVE02350-09 – Roadway Doweled Expansion Joint CVE02350-10 – Roadway Doweled Construction Joint CVE02350-11 – Roadway Doweled/Keyed Joint Page 2 of 40 Process Industry Practices September 2008 PIP CVE02350 Roadway Design Guide 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose This Practice provides guidance and recommended procedures for the layout and design of roadways inside plant boundaries and for access to a plant facility. 1.2 Scope This Practice describes roadway classifications and provides guidance for design of right-of-ways, access to public roads, use of local materials, climate effects, traffic loading, layout and traffic control, design of paving and roadways, providing drainage, and providing railroad and pipeline crossings for roadways within plant boundaries and for access to a plant facility. 2. References Applicable requirements of the following Practices, and industry codes and standards, and references should be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract award should be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where appropriate. 2.1 Process Industry Practices PIP – PIP CVS02350 – Roadway and Area Paving Construction Specification – PIP CVS02700 – Underground Gravity Sewers Specification – PIP PNE00003 – Process Unit and Offsites Layout Guide – PIP STS03001 – Plain and Reinforced Concrete Specification – PIP CVI02000 – Civil General Notes and Typical Details 2.2 Industry Guides and Standards AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Traffic Officials – Guide for Design of Pavement Structures – A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets American Concrete Institute ACI – ACI 302.1R – Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction – ACI 504R – Guide to Joint Sealants for Concrete Structures ASTM International ASTM – ASTM C76 – Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe – ASTM D1195 – Standard Test Method for Repetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements – ASTM D1196 – Standard Test Method for Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Tests of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 40 PIP CVE02350 September 2008 Roadway Design Guide – ASTM D1883 – Standard Test Method for CBR California Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils – ASTM D2844 – Standard Test Method for Resistance R-Value and Expansion Pressure of Compacted Soils Federal Highway Administration FHWA – Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices MUTCD – Protocol P46 Long-Term Pavement Performance LTPP 3. Definitions asphalt concrete High-quality, thoroughly-controlled hot mixture of asphalt cement and well-graded, high-quality aggregate, thoroughly compacted into a uniform dense mass base course A layer of well-graded granular material that supports the paving and distributes wheel loads over a greater area of the subgrade binder course For a multi-layered paving system, a layer directly below the wearing course, and composed of intermediate-sized aggregate with a lesser amount of asphalt than the wearing course geogrid High tensile strength polymer material designed with transverse and longitudinal grids. Laid directly on the subgrade, the grid geometry provides a mechanism for interlocking aggregate base or subbase material placed on the geogrid. The interlocking prevents lateral movement of the aggregate and improves load distribution to the subgrade. geotextile Polyester fabric material laid over subgrade materials directly below an aggregate subbase. It maintains separation of subbase from subgrade. Geotextile is permeable, allowing pore water to pass vertically through the fabric. owner The party who owns the facility wherein the roadway will be constructed paved surface Reinforced or asphaltic concrete that distributes the load to base and subbase, seals against penetration of surface water or liquids, resists abrasion, and provides traction plant boundaries The delineation between areas accessible to the general public and areas where access is controlled by the plant subbase A compacted layer of well-graded fill that may be required under the base course. Typically provided over fine grained subgrade soils to improve drainage, resist frost heave, provide structural support by distributing loads, and to prevent pumping of finer grained soils into the base material at paving joints and edges. subgrade Foundation soil placed and/or compacted during the rough grading work. Typically consists of natural soils found on site, unless soil strength is inadequate and imported soils are required. wearing course A layer of fine aggregate or course sand held by an asphalt binder and designed to resist wear from traffic. The layer which directly supports traffic. Page 4 of 40 Process Industry Practices September 2008 PIP CVE02350 Roadway Design Guide 4. Roadway Classifications 4.1 General 4.1.1 All major plant areas should be accessible by primary roads from two opposite sides minimum and preferably all around to provide adequate access for firefighting and other emergency equipment. As a minimum, a tertiary road around the plant should be considered. 4.1.2 Plant areas containing process equipment should be accessible for plant maintenance activities. Roadways to these areas should be designed to permit access for the largest required maintenance equipment. 4.1.3 Roadway design requirements within plant boundaries should be specified by owner and are typically unregulated by governmental agencies. 4.1.4 Type of roadway pavement is defined based on traffic, load, weather, air and ground pollution controls, cost, etc. It includes paved roads such as asphalt and concrete and unpaved roads such as gravel. This guide focus is on paved roads. 4.2 Primary Roadways 4.2.1 Within Plant Boundaries 4.2.1.1 Primary roadways provide access to product shipping and receiving points and sufficient space for major maintenance vehicles to pass. Primary roadways include all roads typically used by large trucks and cranes. 4.2.1.2 Vehicle velocities are normally set by owner and are posted 30 mph or less. 4.2.1.3 Roadways with high volume truck traffic e.g., between main shipping and receiving docks may require a greater than typical radius and should also be designed for loadings in accordance with AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, and the local state highway design manuals for the applicable locale. 4.2.1.4 Primary roadways typically have two 10 to 12 ft wide lanes with 3 ft shoulders. 4.2.1.5 Primary roadways are typically paved. 4.2.2 Urban and Rural Areas Outside Plant Boundaries 4.2.2.1 AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, categorizes functional systems for travel movement. Although rural and urban areas differ in travel volumes and percentage of road length comprising each functional system, the broad categories share common traits. Public primary roadways generally are included in the arterial functional category – either principal or minor. There can be some component of the lower hierarchy collector functional category included also. 4.2.2.2 Typically, primary roadways in urban and rural areas include principal state highways, interstates, and routes providing higher levels of mobility between major population centers. Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 40 PIP CVE02350 September 2008 Roadway Design Guide 4.2.2.3 The roadways are characterized by strict design and safety standards. Typically, states limit vehicle widths to 8 ft without permit. Height restrictions typically range from 12.5 to 14 ft. A nominal 12 ft wide lane is typical for general use. A 6 to 10 ft shoulder can be required depending upon surrounding terrain. 4.2.2.4 Design of public primary roadways is seldom required for plant facilities. However, a project may include connecting a plant roadway to one of these roadways. Appropriate AASHTO documents should be consulted for further guidance. 4.3 Secondary Roadways 4.3.1 Within Plant Boundaries 4.3.1.1 Secondary roadways provide access to equipment within plant areas by maintenance vehicles except cranes and personnel vehicles. 4.3.1.2 Typically, vehicle velocities are set by owner and are posted 15 mph or less. 4.3.1.3 Secondary roadways typically have one or two 10 ft wide lanes. 4.3.1.4 Secondary roadways may or may not be paved depending on loading conditions and other considerations such as dust control and drainage. 4.3.2 Urban and Rural Areas Outside Plant Boundaries 4.3.2.1 AASHTO functional categories included in the public secondary roadway classification are collector roads, local roads and streets, and roads that provide access between a primary roadway system and land use. 4.3.2.2 Typically, secondary roadways have lower traffic volumes and vehicle velocities. Secondary roadways typically provide access to a facility. 4.3.2.3 Pavement structures and geometric considerations are not as stringent as for primary roadways and can provide limited through-traffic accessibility. 4.3.2.4 Design of public secondary roadways should be in accordance with local, state, and federal requirements. Appropriate AASHTO documents should be consulted for further guidance. 4.4 Tertiary Roadways 4.4.1 Typically, tertiary roadways provide occasional access to areas of a facility for maintenance, security, and firefighting vehicles. 4.4.2 Tertiary roadways may have one or two lanes and be up to 20 ft wide, with or without shoulders. 4.4.3 Tertiary roadways may or may not be paved. 4.5 Construction and Heavy Haul Roadways 4.5.1 Construction and heavy haul roadways provide greater than typical load capacity and have specialized service conditions. 4.5.2 These roadways may be temporary or permanent. Page 6 of 40 Process Industry Practices September 2008 PIP CVE02350 Roadway Design Guide 4.5.3 Composition of these roadways can range from a stabilized earth surface prepared by reshaping and compacting native soil to a high-quality subgrade with several layers of engineered base and subbase courses and pavement. 4.5.4 Service life, maximum grade, clearances, turning points, load and unloading points, drainage, and environmental impact on the surrounding areas e.g., surface drainage, noise, dust, etc. should be considered in the initial layout of these roadways. 5. General Design Considerations 5.1 Right-of-Way 5.1.1 Within Plant Boundaries 5.1.1.1 Right-of-way considerations are defined by owner. 5.1.1.2 If the owner has sold or leased part of a plant facility to another entity, an easement condition can exist that includes sharing plant roads. 5.1.2 Outside Plant Boundaries 5.1.2.1 Local, state, and federal right-of-way requirements apply to plant boundaries that border roadways outside plant boundaries and access points to the roadways. 5.1.2.2 The right-of-way is acquired by the governmental authority through direct purchase or eminent domain with compensation. 5.1.2.3 The right-of-way width is typically sufficient to accommodate the ultimate planned roadway includi
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