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Designation F3061/F3061M − 19Standard Specification forSystems and Equipment in Small Aircraft1This standard is issued under the fixed designation F3061/F3061M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ´ indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers international standards for thesystems and equipment aspects of airworthiness and design for“small” aircraft.1.2 The applicant for a design approval must seek theindividual guidance of their respective CAA body concerningthe use of this standard as part of a certification plan. Forinformation on which CAA regulatory bodies have acceptedthis standard in whole or in part as a means of compliance totheir Small Aircraft Airworthiness regulations hereinafterreferred to as “the Rules”, refer to ASTM F44 webpagewww.astm.org/COMMITTEE/F44.htm which includes CAAwebsite links.1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, toensure conformance with the standard, each system shall beused independently of the other, and values from the twosystems shall not be combined.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.5 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade TBT Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 Following is a list of external standards referencedthroughout this specification; the earliest revision acceptablefor use is indicated. In all cases later document revisions areacceptable if shown to be equivalent to the listed revision, or ifotherwise formally accepted by the governing civil aviationauthority; earlier revisions are not acceptable.2.2 ASTM Standards2F3060 Terminology for AircraftF3082/F3082M Specification for Weights and Centers ofGravity of AircraftF3083/F3083M Specification for Emergency Conditions,Occupant Safety and AccommodationsF3116/F3116M Specification for Design Loads and Condi-tionsF3117/F3117M Specification for Crew Interface in AircraftF3179/F3179M Specification for Performance of AircraftF3227/F3227M Specification for Environmental Systems inSmall AircraftF3228 Specification for Flight Data and Voice Recording inSmall AircraftF3230 Practice for Safety Assessment of Systems andEquipment in Small AircraftF3231/F3231M Specification for Electrical Systems for Air-craft with Combustion Engine Electrical Power Genera-tionF3232/F3232M Specification for Flight Controls in SmallAircraftF3233/F3233M Specification for Instrumentation in SmallAircraftF3234/F3234M Specification for Exterior Lighting in SmallAircraftF3236 Specification for High Intensity Radiated FieldHIRF Protection in Small AircraftF3309/F3309M Practice for Simplified SafetyAssessment ofSystems and Equipment in Small AircraftF3316/F3316M Specification for Electrical Systems for Air-craft with Electric or Hybrid-Electric Propulsion2.3 SAE Standard3SAE ARP4754, Rev A Guidelines for Development of CivilAircraft Systems1This specification is under the jurisdiction ofASTM Committee F44 on GeneralAviation Aircraft and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F44.50 onSystems and Equipment.Current edition approved June 1, 2019. Published June 2019. Originallyapproved in 2015. Last previous edition approved in 2017 as F3061/F3061M–17.DOI 10.1520/F3061_F3061M–19.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from SAE International SAE, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale,PA 15096, http//www.sae.org.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee.12.4 Other StandardsFAA-S-8081-14B, Change 5 Private Pilot Practical TestStandards for Airplane4RTCA DO-178, Rev B Software Considerations in AirborneSystems and Equipment Certification5RTCA DO-254 Design Assurance Guidance for AirborneElectronic Hardware53. Terminology3.1 Terminology specific to this standard is provided below.For general terminology, refer to Terminology F3060.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.2.1 aircraft type code, nan Aircraft Type Code ATC isdefined by considering both the technical considerations re-garding the design of the aircraft and the aeroplane certificationlevel established based upon risk-based criteria. An ATC isexpressed as an alphanumeric character string as illustrated inFig. 1. An explanation of each character in the string isprovided below.3.2.1.1 DiscussionThe first character in the Aircraft TypeCode indicates the risk-based aeroplane certification level ofthe aircraft.1 A “1” indicates an aeroplane certification level corre-sponding to Level 1; this corresponds to seating for one orfewer passengers excluding crew.2 A “2” indicates an aeroplane certification level corre-sponding to Level 2; this corresponds to seating for two ormore passengers but no more than six excluding crew.3 A “3” indicates an aeroplane certification level corre-sponding to Level 3; this corresponds to seating for seven ormore passengers but no more than nine excluding crew.4 A “4” indicates an aeroplane certification level corre-sponding to Level 4; this corresponds to seating for ten or morepassengers but no more than nineteen excluding crew.3.2.1.2 DiscussionThe second character in the AircraftType Code indicates the number of engines employed on theaircraft.1 An “S” indicates a single-engine aircraft.2 An “M” indicates a multiengine aircraft.3.2.1.3 DiscussionThe third character in theAircraft TypeCode indicates the type of engines employed on the aircraft.1 An “R” indicates use of a reciprocating engine.2 A “T” indicates use of a turbine engine.3.2.1.4 DiscussionThe fourth character in the AircraftType Code indicates the stall speed of the aircraft.1 An “L” indicates a stall speed less than or equal to 83km/h [45 knots].2 An “M” indicates a stall speed greater than 83 km/h [45knots] but less than or equal to 113 km/h [61 knots].3 An “H” indicates a stall speed greater than 113 km/h[61 knots].3.2.1.5 DiscussionThe fifth character in the Aircraft TypeCode indicates the cruise speed of the aircraft.1 An “L” indicates a cruise speed less than or equal to463 km/h [250 knots] or Mach ≤ 0.6.2 An “H” indicates a cruise speed greater than 463 km/h[250 knots] or Mach 0.6.3.2.1.6 DiscussionThe sixth character in theAircraft TypeCode indicates the allowed meteorological conditions of theaircraft.1 A “D” indicates an aircraft limited to Day VFR condi-tions only.2 An “N” indicates an aircraft limited to Day or NightVFR conditions only.3 A “I” indicates an aircraft certified for IFR operations.3.2.1.7 DiscussionThe seventh character in the AircraftType Code indicates the maximum operational altitude of theaircraft.1 An “L” indicates an aircraft with a maximum opera-tional altitude equal to or less than 7620 m [25 000 ft].2 An “H” indicates an aircraft with a maximum opera-tional altitude greater than 7620 m [25 000 ft].3.2.1.8 DiscussionThe eighth character in the AircraftType Code indicates the allowed flight maneuvers for theaircraft.1 An “N” indicates an aircraft that is limited to non-aerobatic maneuvers.2 An “A” indicates an aircraft that is certified for aero-batic maneuvers.4Available from Federal Aviation Administration FAA, 800 IndependenceAve., SW, Washington, DC 20591, http//www.faa.gov.5Available from RTCA, 1150 18th NW, Suite 910, Washington, DC 20036,https//www.rtca.org.FIG. 1 Illustration of Aircraft Type CodeF3061/F3061M − 1923.2.2 continued safe flight and landing, ncontinued safeflight and landing is defined as the capability for continuedcontrolled flight and landing, possibly using emergencyprocedures, but without requiring pilot skill beyond thatneeded to pass the Private Pilot Practical Test Standard forAirplane refer to FAA-S-8081-14B, or requiring pilot forcesbeyond those defined in Specification F3082/F3082M. Landingmay occur either at an airport or at an emergency landinglocation consistent with established emergency procedures.Some aircraft damage may be realized, either during flight orupon landing.3.2.3 development assurance level, na development assur-ance level is an indication of the level of those planned andsystematic actions used to substantiate, to an adequate level ofconfidence, that errors in requirements, design, and implemen-tation have been identified and corrected such that the systemsatisfies the applicable certification basis.3.2.4 primary function, na primary function is a functionthat is installed to comply with applicable requirements for arequired function and that provides the most pertinent controlsor information instantly and directly to the pilot.3.2.5 primary system, na primary system is a system thatprovides a primary function.3.2.6 secondary system, na secondary system is a redun-dancy system that provides the same function as the primarysystem.3.2.7 unsafe system operating condition, nan unsafe sys-tem operating condition is any system operating conditionwhich, if not detected and properly accommodated by crewaction, would significantly contribute to or cause one or moreserious injuries.4. Basic InformationNOTE 1Table 1 provides correlation between various Aircraft TypeCodes and the individual requirements contained within this section; referto 3.2.1. For each subsection, an indicator can be found under each ATCcharacter field; three indicators are usedAn empty cellinal applicable ATC character field columnsindicates that an aircraft must meet the requirements of that subsection.A white circle ○ in multiple columns indicates that the requirementsof that subsection are not applicable to an aircraft only if all such ATCcharacter fields are applicable.A mark-out in any of the applicable ATC character field columnsindicates that the requirements of that subsection are not applicable to anaircraft if that ATC character field is applicable.ExampleAn aircraft with anATC of 1SRLLDLN is being considered.Since all applicable columns are empty for 4.1.1, that subsection isapplicable to the aircraft. Since the “1” aeroplane certification levelcolumn, the “L” stall speed column, and the “D” meteorological columnfor 4.1.6 all contain white circles, then that subsection is not applicable;however, for an aircraft with an ATC of 1SRMLDLN, 4.1.6 would beapplicable since the “M” stall speed column does not contain a whitecircle. Subsection 4.2.2 would also not be applicable to the second aircraft,since it contains an in the “M” stall speed column.NOTE 2The requirements of this chapter are applicable to all systemsand equipment installed in the aircraft. These requirements are in additionto and do not supersede any additional system specific requirementsidentified elsewhere in these design standards or contained in the rules ofthe governing civil aviation authority.4.1 Function and Installation4.1.1 Each item of installed equipment must be of a kindand design appropriate to its intended function.TABLE 1 ATC Compliance Matrix, Section 4SectionAeroplane Certification LevelNumber ofEnginesType ofEnginesStall SpeedCruiseSpeedMeteorologicalConditionsAltitude Maneuvers1234SMRTLMHLHDNILHNA44.14.1.14.1.24.1.34.1.44.1.54.1.6 CCC4.1.74.1.84.1.8.14.1.8.24.24.2.14.2.1.14.2.1.24.2.24.2.2.1 CCC4.2.2.24.2.2.34.2.2.44.2.34.2.3.14.2.3.24.2.3.34.2.4 CCC4.2.54.2.5.14.2.6 CC4.2.6.14.2.6.2F3061/F3061M − 1934.1.2 Each item of installed equipment must be marked in away that makes it clear to an installer the equipment’sidentification, function, or operating limitations, or any appli-cable combination of these factors. It is acceptable to referenceequipment installation manuals for function or limitationinformation.4.1.3 Each item of installed equipment must be installedaccording to limitations specified for that equipment.4.1.4 Each item of installed equipment must function prop-erly when installed.4.1.5 The aircraft systems and equipment required for typecertification or by operating rules must be designed andinstalled so that they perform as intended under the aircraftoperating and environmental conditions.NOTE 3The intent of this requirement is to provide assurance that therequired systems and equipment will function as intended in the expectedoperating and environmental conditions. It is recognized that randomfailures will occur throughout the aircraft life and that the failed devicemay no longer “perform as intended.” The acceptability of such failures orcombination of failures and their associated risks are addressed under therequirements of 4.2.4.1.6 All aircraft systems and equipment must be designedand installed so that they do not adversely affect the safety ofthe aircraft or its occupants.4.1.7 All aircraft systems and equipment must be designedand installed so that they do not adversely affect the properfunctioning of those systems or equipment, or both, covered by4.1.5.4.1.8 Those systems and equipment not required for typecertification or by operating rules are not required to performtheir intended function under all aircraft operating and envi-ronmental conditions, provided that the resultant failure con-ditions are classified as “Negligible Failure Condition” in theassessment conducted per 4.2.1; refer to Practice F3230.4.1.8.1 Non-required systems and equipment with failureconditions classified more severe than “Negligible FailureCondition” are not required to perform their intended functionunder all aircraft operating and environmental conditions,provided the failure is appropriately annunciated to the crew.4.1.8.2 When addressing the requirements of 4.2,ifanycredit is taken for the installation, or any aspect, of thesenon-required systems, the portion of the system for whichcredit is taken must comply with 4.1.4.4.2 System Safety Requiremen
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