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Designation G8 − 96 Reapproved 2019Standard Test Methods forCathodic Disbonding of Pipeline Coatings1This standard is issued under the fixed designation G8; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of originaladoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.Anumber in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.Asuperscriptepsilon ´ indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 These test methods cover accelerated procedures forsimultaneously determining comparative characteristics of in-sulating coating systems applied to steel pipe exterior for thepurpose of preventing or mitigating corrosion that may occur inunderground service where the pipe will be in contact withinland soils and may or may not receive cathodic protection.They are intended for use with samples of coated pipe takenfrom commercial production and are applicable to suchsamples when the coating is characterized by function as anelectrical barrier.1.2 This test method is intended for testing coatings sub-merged or immersed in the test solution at room temperature.When it is impractical to submerge or immerse the testspecimen, Test Method G95 may be considered where the testcell is cemented to the surface of the coated pipe specimen. Ifhigher temperatures are required, see Test Method G42.Ifaspecific test method is required with no options, see TestMethod G80.1.3 The values stated in SI units to 3 significant decimals areto be regarded as the standard. The values given in parenthesesare for information only.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.5 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade TBT Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2G12 Test Method for Nondestructive Measurement of FilmThickness of Pipeline Coatings on Steel Withdrawn20133G42 Test Method for Cathodic Disbonding of PipelineCoatings Subjected to Elevated TemperaturesG80 Test Method for Specific Cathodic Disbonding of Pipe-line Coatings Withdrawn 20133G95 Test Method for Cathodic Disbondment Test of PipelineCoatings Attached Cell Method3. Summary of Test Method3.1 Both of the two test methods described subject thecoating on the test specimen to electrical stress in a highlyconductive, alkaline electrolyte. Electrical stress is obtainedeither by means of a sacrificial magnesium anode or from animpressed current system. The coating is perforated beforestarting the test.3.1.1 In Method A, a magnesium anode is used with noelectrical monitoring during the test period. The results aredetermined by physical examination after the test period isconcluded.3.1.2 In Method B, either a magnesium anode or an im-pressed current system may be used. Electrical instrumentationis provided for measuring the current in the cell circuit. Theelectrical potential is also measured, and upon conclusion ofthe test period, the test specimen is physically examined.3.1.3 In both test methods physical examination is con-ducted by comparing the extent of loosened or disbondedcoating at the perforations in the immersed area with extent ofloosened or disbonded coating at a new test hole in the coatingmade in an area that was not immersed.4. Significance and Use4.1 Breaks or holidays in pipe coatings may expose the pipeto possible corrosion, since after a pipe has been installed1These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D01 onPaint and Related Coatings, Materials, and Applications and are the directresponsibility of Subcommittee D01.48 on Durability of Pipeline Coating andLinings.Current edition approved June 1, 2019. Published June 2019. Originallyapproved in 1969. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as G8 – 96 2010. DOI10.1520/G0008-96R19.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee.1underground, the surrounding earth will be more or lessmoisture-bearing and it constitutes an effective electrolyte.Damage to pipe coating is almost unavoidable during trans-portation and construction. Normal soil potentials as well asapplied cathodic protection potentials may cause loosening ofthe coating, beginning at holiday edges, in some cases increas-ing the apparent size of the holiday. Holidays may also becaused by such potentials. While apparently loosened coatingand cathodic holidays may not result in corrosion, this testprovides accelerated conditions for loosening to occur andtherefore gives a measure of resistance of coatings to this typeof action.4.2 The effects of the test may be evaluated by eitherphysical examination or monitoring the current drawn by thetest specimen and both of these two. Usually there is nocorrelation between the two methods of evaluation but bothmethods are significant. Physical examination consists ofassessing the effective contact of the coating with the metalsurface in terms of observed differences in the relative adhesivebond. It is usually found that the electrically stressed areapropagates from the holiday to a boundary where the loosenedcoating leaves off for the more effective contact or bondattributed to an original condition throughout the specimenbefore electrical stressing was applied.Assumptions associatedwith test results include the following4.2.1 Attempting to loosen or disbond the coating at a newtest hole made in the coating in an area that was not immersedrepresents maximum adhesion or bond as measured by thelifting technique used, and that the same lifting technique canbe used at a test hole that was immersed thereby providing ameans of comparing relative resistance to lifting.4.2.2 Any relatively lesser bonded area at the immersed testholes in the coating was caused by electrical stressing and wasnot attributable to an anomaly in the application process.Ability to resist disbondment is a desired quality on a com-parative basis, but disbondment per se in this test is notnecessarily an adverse indication. The virtue of this test is thatall dielectric type coatings now in common use will disbond tosome degree thus providing a means of comparing one coatingwith another. Bond strength is more important for properfunctioning of some coatings than others and the same mea-sured disbondment for two different coating systems may notrepresent equivalent loss of corrosion protection.4.2.3 The amount of current in the test cell is a relativeindicator of the extent of areas requiring protection againstcorrosion; however, the current density appearing in this test ismuch greater than that usually required for cathodic protectionin natural, inland soil environments.5. Apparatus5.1 Apparatus for Both Methods5.1.1 Test VesselA nonconducting material shall be usedfor the vessel or as a lining in a metallic vessel. Dimensions ofthe vessel shall permit the following requirements5.1.1.1 Test specimens shall be suspended vertically in thevessel with at least 25.4-mm 1-in. clearance from the bottom.5.1.1.2 Each test specimen shall be separated from the otherspecimens, from the anodes and from the walls of the testvessel by at least 38.1 mm 1.500 in..5.1.1.3 Depth of electrolyte shall permit the test length ofthe specimen to be immersed as required in 7.4.5.1.1.4 If electrical monitoring is to be performed as re-quired in Method B, the reference electrode may be placedanywhere in the vessel, provided it is separated from thespecimen and from the anode by not less than 38.1 mm 1.500in..5.1.2 Magnesium AnodeThe anode shall be made of amagnesium alloy having a solution potential of −1.45 to −1.55V with respect to a CuCuSO4reference electrode in theelectrolyte given in 6.1. It shall have a surface area not lessthan one third that of the total specimen area exposed toelectrolyte outside area exposed only. The anode shall beprovided with a factory-sealed, 4107-cmil 14-gage Awg,minimum, insulated copper wire.Anodes without a factory sealmay be used if the magnesium extends above the cover.5.1.3 ConnectorsWiring from anode to test specimenshall be 4107-cmil 14-gageAwg, minimum, insulated copper.Attachment to the test specimen shall be by soldering, brazing,or bolting to the nonimmersed end, and the place of attachmentshall be coated with an insulating material. A junction in theconnecting wire is permitted, provided that it is made by meansof a bolted pair of terminal lugs soldered or mechanicallycrimped to clean wire ends.5.1.4 Holiday ToolsHolidays shall be made with conven-tional drills of the required diameter. For use in preparingsmall-diameter pipe specimens such as 19.05 mm 0.750 in.nominal diameter pipe, the use of a drill modified by substan-tially grinding away the sharp cone point has been foundeffective in preventing perforation of the metal wall of the pipe.A sharp-pointed knife with a safe handle is required for use inmaking physical examinations.5.1.5 High-Resistance Voltmeter, for direct current, havingan internal resistance of not less than 10 MΩ and having arange from 0.01 to 5 V for measuring potential to the referenceelectrode.5.1.6 Reference Electrode, saturated CuCuSO4of conven-tional glass or plastic tube with porous plug construction,preferably not over 19.05 mm 0.750 in. in diameter, having apotential of −0.316 V with respect to the standard hydrogenelectrode.Acalomel electrode may be used, but measurementsmade with it shall be converted to the CuCuSO4reference forreporting by adding −0.072 V to the observed reading.5.1.7 Thickness Gage, for measuring coating thickness inaccordance with Test Method G12.5.1.8 Thermometer, for measuring electrolyte temperature,general lab type, 1° subdivisions, 76.2 mm 3 in. immersion.5.2 Additional Apparatus for Method B5.2.1 High-Resistance Voltmeter, for direct current, havingan internal resistance of not less than 10 MΩ and capable ofmeasuring as low as 10 µV potential drop across a shunt in thetest cell circuit.5.2.2 Precision Wire-Wound Resistor, 1-Ω 6 1 , 1-Wminimum, to be used in the test cell circuit as a shunt forcurrent.G8 − 96 201925.2.3 Volt-Ohm-Meter, for initial testing of apparent coatingresistance.5.2.4 Metallic Electrode, used temporarily with the volt-ohm-meter to determine apparent initial holiday status of thetest specimen.5.2.5 Additional Connecting Wires, 4107-cmil 14-gageAwg, minimum, insulated copper.5.2.6 Brass Studs, used at a terminal board, together withalligator clips or knife switches, for making and breakingcircuits. Alligator clips shall not be used to connect toelectrodes or specimens at the top location of test cells.5.2.7 Zero-Resistance Ammeter, capable of measuring directcurrent as low as 10 µA may be used in the alternative methodgiven in 9.1.3 and substituted for the apparatus described in5.2.1 and 5.2.2.5.2.8 Direct-Current Rectifier, capable of supplying con-stant voltage at a voltage of 1.50 6 0.01 V, as measuredbetween the specimen and reference electrode.5.2.9 Impressed Current Anode, shall be of the nonconsum-able type provided with a factory sealed, insulated copperwire.45.2.10 Voltage Divider, 100-Ω, 25-W rheostat, to be used ifmore than one specimen is to be tested as shown in Fig. 1.6. Reagent and Materials6.1 The electrolyte shall consist of potable tap water withthe addition of 1 mass of each of the following technical-grade salts, calculated on an anhydrous basis sodium chloride,sodium sulfate, and sodium carbonate. Use freshly preparedsolution for each test.6.2 Materials for sealing the ends of coated pipe specimensmay consist of bituminous products, wax, epoxy, or othermaterials, including molded elastomeric or plastic end caps.6.3 Plywood or plastic material has been found suitable forthe construction of test vessel covers and for the supportthrough apertures of test specimens and electrodes. Wooddowels introduced through holes in the top ends of testspecimens have been found suitable for suspending test speci-mens from the vessel cover.7. Test Specimen7.1 The test specimen shall be a representative piece ofproduction-coated pipe. One end shall be plugged or capped,and sealed.7.2 One or three holidays shall be made in each specimen.Three holidays are recommended. Recommended dimensionsare given in Fig. 2. A specimen with one holiday shall have itdrilled in the middle of the immersed length. If three holidaysare used, they shall be drilled 120° apart with one in the centerand the other two at locations one fourth the distance from topand bottom of the immersed test length. Each holiday shall bedrilled so that the angular cone point of the drill will fully enterthe steel where the cylindrical portion of the drill meets thesteel surface. The drill diameter shall be not less than threetimes the coating thickness, but it shall never be smaller than6.35 mm 0.250 in. in diameter. The steel wall of the pipe shall4Durion, a material found suitable for this purpose is available from Durion Co.,Inc., Dayton OH.FIG. 1 Modification of Method B Fig. 5 Using Impressed Current to Test More than One SpecimenG8 − 96 20193not be perforated. With small-diameter pipes, where there isdanger of perforating the pipe, the holiday shall be started witha standard 60° cone point and finished with a drill that has hada substantial portion of the cone point ground away.NOTE 1Before making the holiday, see 8.1.7.3 The end of the pipe which will protrude above theimmersion line shall be provided with suitable supportingmeans and a separate wire connection for electrical purposes,soldered, brazed, or bolted to the pipe. The protruding end,including hanger and wire connections, shall be protected andsealed with an insulating coating material.7.4 The specimen test area shall consist of the area betweenthe edge of the bottom end seal and the immersion line. Thebottom end seal area shall not be considered part of the areatested.Any suitable diamete
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