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Designation F3174/F3174M − 19Standard Specification forEstablishing Operating Limitations and Information forAeroplanes1This standard is issued under the fixed designation F3174/F3174M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon ´ indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers airworthiness requirements forestablishing general limitations and information to be con-tained in the aeroplane flight manual. This specification speci-fies what information shall be provided and does not state howsuch information shall be presented unless this is necessary forthe clarity of the purpose of the specification. Refer toSpecification F3117/F3117M for means and methods of pre-sentation. The material was developed through open consensusof international experts in general aviation. This informationwas created by focusing on Level 1, 2, 3, and 4 NormalCategory aeroplanes. The content may be more broadly appli-cable; it is the responsibility of the applicant to substantiatebroader applicability as a specific means of compliance. Thetopics covered within this specification are Limitations forAirspeed, Weight and Center of Gravity, Auxiliary PowerUnits, Minimum Flight Crew, Maximum Passenger SeatingConfiguration, Kinds of Operation, and Maximum OperatingAltitude.1.2 An applicant intending to propose this information asMeans of Compliance for a design approval must seek guid-ance from their respective oversight authority for example,published guidance from applicable CAAs concerning theacceptable use and application thereof. For information onwhich oversight authorities have accepted this specification inwhole or in part as an acceptable Means of Compliance totheir regulatory requirements hereinafter “the Rules”, refer tothe ASTM Committee F44 web page www.astm.org/COMMITTEE/F44.htm.1.3 UnitsThis specification may present information ineither SI units, English Engineering units, or both; the valuesstated in each system may not be exact equivalents. Eachsystem shall be used independently of the other; combiningvalues from the two systems may result in nonconformancewith the standard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.5 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade TBT Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2F3060 Terminology for AircraftF3082/F3082M Specification for Weights and Centers ofGravity of AircraftF3114 Specification for StructuresF3116/F3116M Specification for Design Loads and Condi-tionsF3117/F3117M Specification for Crew Interface in AircraftF3173/F3173M Specification for Aircraft Handling Charac-teristics3. Terminology3.1 See Terminology F3060 for definitions and abbrevia-tions.4. Establishing Operating Limitations and Information4.1 GeneralEach applicable operating limitation specifiedin 4.2 – 4.8 and other limitations and information necessary forsafe operation shall be established.4.1.1 The operating limitations and other information nec-essary for safe operation shall be made available to thecrewmembers as prescribed in Specification F3117/F3117M.1This specification is under the jurisdiction ofASTM Committee F44 on GeneralAviation Aircraft and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F44.20 on Flight.Current edition approved May 1, 2019. Published May 2019. Originallyapproved in 2015. Last previous edition approved in 2018 as F3174/F3174M–18.DOI 10.1520/F3174_F3174M–19.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee.14.2 Airspeed Limitations4.2.1 The never-exceed speed, VNE, shall be established asan operating limitation and shall be so that it is4.2.1.1 Not less than 0.9 times the minimum value of VDallowed under Specification F3116/F3116M, and4.2.1.2 Not more than the lesser of1 0.9 VDestablished under Specification F3116/F3116M,or2 0.9 times the maximum speed shown under Specifica-tion F3173/F3173M, Vibration and Buffering.4.2.2 The maximum structural cruising speed, VNO, shall beestablished as an operating limitation and shall be so that it is4.2.2.1 Not less than the minimum value of VCallowedunder Specification F3116/F3116M, and4.2.2.2 Not more than the lesser of1 VCestablished under Specification F3116/F3116M,or2 0.89 VNEestablished under 4.2.1.4.2.3 Subsections 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 do not apply to aeroplanesfor which a VD/MDis established based on a minimum speedmargin between VC/MCand VD/MDunder SpecificationF3116/F3116M. For those aeroplanes1 A maximum operating limit speed VMO/MMOairspeedor Mach number, whichever is critical at a particular altitudeshall be established as a speed that shall not be deliberatelyexceeded in any regime of flight climb, cruise, or descentunless a higher speed is authorized for flight test or pilottraining operations.2 The value, VMO/MMO, shall be established so that it isnot greater than the design cruising speed, VC/MC.3 The value, VMO/MMO, shall be established so that it issufficiently below VD/MD,orVDF/MDFfor jets, and themaximum speed shown under Specification F3173/F3173M,Vibration and Buffeting, to make it highly improbable that thelatter speeds will be inadvertently exceeded in operations.4 The speed margin between VMO/MMOand VD/MD,orVDF/MDFfor jets, shall not be less than that determined underSpecification F3116/F3116M, Design Dive Speed.5 The speed margin between VMO/MMOand VD/MD,orVDF/MDFfor jets, shall not be less than the speed margin foundnecessary in the flight tests conducted under SpecificationF3173/F3173M, speed increase and recovery characteristics.4.2.4 The maximum operating maneuvering speed, VO,shall be established as an operating limitation and is a selectedspeed that is not greater than Vsn established in SpecificationF3116/F3116M, Design Maneuvering Speed.4.2.5 The flap extended speed, VFE, shall be established asan operating limitation and shall be so that it is4.2.5.1 Not less than the minimum value of VFallowed inSpecification F3116/F3116M, High Lift Devices, and4.2.5.2 Not more than VFestablished under SpecificationF3116/F3116M, High Lift Devices.4.2.5.3 Additional combinations of flap setting, airspeed,and engine power may be established if the structure has beenproven for the corresponding design conditions.4.2.6 The minimum control speed, VMC, determined underSpecification F3173/F3173M shall be established as an oper-ating limitation.4.3 Weight and Center of GravityThe weight and center ofgravity limitations determined under Specification F3082/F3082M, Load Distribution Limits, shall be established asoperating limitations.4.4 Auxiliary Power Unit LimitationsIf an auxiliarypower unit is installed, the limitations established for theauxiliary power unit shall be specified in the operating limita-tions for the aeroplane.4.5 Minimum Flight CrewThe minimum flight crew shallbe established as an operating limitation and shall be so that itis sufficient for safe operation considering4.5.1 The workload on individual crewmembers,4.5.2 The accessibility and ease of operation of necessarycontrols by the appropriate crewmember, and4.5.3 The kinds of operation authorized under 4.7.4.5.4 In addition, for Level 4 aeroplanes, each crewmemberworkload determination shall consider the following1 Flight path control,2 Collision avoidance,3 Navigation,4 Communications,5 Operation and monitoring of all essential aeroplanesystems,6 Command decisions, and7 The accessibility and ease of operation of necessarycontrols by the appropriate crewmember during all normal andemergency operations when at the crewmember flight station.4.6 Maximum Passenger Seating ConfigurationThe maxi-mum passenger seating configuration shall be established as anoperating limitation.4.7 Kinds of OperationThe kinds of operation authorizedfor example, VFR, IFR, day or night and the meteorologicalconditions for example, icing to which the operation of theaeroplane is limited or from which it is prohibited shall beestablished as operating limitations and shall be appropriate tothe installed equipment.4.8 Maximum Operating Altitude4.8.1 The maximum altitude up to which operation isallowed, as limited by flight, structural, powerplant, functionalor equipment characteristics, shall be established as an oper-ating limitation.4.8.2 For pressurized aeroplanes, a maximum operatingaltitude limitation of not more than 7620 m [25 000 ft] shall beestablished unless compliance with Specification F3114, Wind-shields and Windows for operation above this altitude isshown.5. Keywords5.1 aeroplane; aeroplane flight manual; airworthiness designrequirementF3174/F3174M − 192APPENDIXESNonmandatory InformationX1. REMOVED WITH F3174/F3174M – 18X2. CHANGE HISTORYX2.1 Change History from F3174/F3174M – 15 to – 18X2.1.1 Reason for RevisionAlignment with 14 CFR Part23, Amendment 64 and EASA CS 23 Amdt. 5, Update ofreferences and simplification of language.X2.1.2 Detailed ChangesX2.1.2.1 Section 1.1 through 1.3 Update to match F44Standards Editorial Guide 2017-02.X2.1.2.2 Section 2.1 New reference for F3082/F3082Madded. Update of titles.X2.1.2.3 Sections 2.2 and 2.3 Removed, since no longerreferenced in Section 3 and onwards.X2.1.2.4 Section 4.1 Update to match new numberingstructure.X2.1.2.5 Section 4.2.1 Clarification that VNEshall beestablished as an operating limitation.X2.1.2.6 Section 4.2.1.22 Reference changed from sec-tion number to title.X2.1.2.7 Section 4.2.2 Clarification that VNOshall beestablished as an operating limitation and reverted back to 14CFR Part 23, Amendment 62 language non simplified foreasier acceptance of first set of consensus standards by CAAs.X2.1.2.8 Section 4.2.3 Applicability to turbine aeroplanesor to aeroplanes for which VD/MD is established re-introduced, reverted back to 14 CFR Part 23, Amendment 62language non simplified for easier acceptance of first set ofconsensus standards by CAAs.X2.1.2.9 Section 4.2.31 “may” replaced with “shall” inaccordance with F44 Editorial Guide.X2.1.2.10 Section 4.2.32 Reference changed from sectionnumber to title. Term “VDF/MDFfor jets” re-introduced nonsimplified language for easier acceptance of first set ofconsensus standards by CAAs.X2.1.2.11 Section 4.2.33 Reference changed from sectionnumber to title. Term “VDF/MDFfor jets” re-introduced nonsimplified language for easier acceptance of first set ofconsensus standards by CAAs. “May” replaced with “shall” inaccordance with F44 Editorial Guide.X2.1.2.12 Section 4.2.4 Operating Maneuvering Speedformer Section 4.3 moved under Section 4.2 Airspeed Limi-tations. Title of subsection removed, because of redundantlanguage. Reverted back from Vsn to match 14 CFR Part 23,Amendment 62/CS 23, Amendment 4 language non simpli-fied for easier acceptance of first set of consensus standards byCAAs.X2.1.2.13 Section 4.2.5 Flap Extended Speed former Sec-tion 4.4 moved under section 4.2 Airspeed Limitations. Titleof subsection removed, because of redundant language.X2.1.2.14 Section 4.2.5.1 Reference changed from sectionnumber to title. Was section 4.4.1.1.X2.1.2.15 Section 4.2.5.2 Reference changed from sectionnumber to title. Was section 4.4.1.2.X2.1.2.16 Section 4.2.6 Minimum Control Speed formerSection 4.5 moved under Section 4.2 Airspeed Limitations.Reference section number removed since specification numberis sufficient.X2.1.2.17 Section 4.3 Reference updated from 23.23 toF3082/F3082M. Was section 4.6.X2.1.2.18 Section numbering updated from former section4.6 onwards.X2.1.2.19 Section 4.5 Order changed for clarity. Require-ments applicable to all aeroplanes moved upwards. Formersection 4.8.2 becomes 4.5.4. Renumbering of former sections4.8.3 and 4.8.3.X2.1.2.20 Section 4.8.2 Wording order changed, discrimi-nator at the beginning of the sentence for easier understanding.X2.2 Change History from F3174/F3174M – 18 to – 19X2.2.1 Reason for RevisionTo remove the powerplantspecific discriminator in section 4.2.3 and to clarify thelanguage in the same section.X2.2.2 Detailed ChangesX2.2.2.1 Section 4.2.3 Removal of powerplant specificdiscriminator “turbine aeroplanes” and clarification of VD/MDis established based on a minimum speed margin betweenVC/MCand VD/MDunder Specification F3116/F3116M.X2.2.2.2 Section 4.2.3 2 Now split into two sub-itemsNos. 2 and 3 for improved requirements tracking.X2.2.2.3 Section 4.2.3 3 Renumbered and now split intotwo sub-items Nos. 4 and 5 for improved requirementstracking.F3174/F3174M − 193ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-958
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