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Technical Report on Equations and Calculations for Casing, Tubing, --,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---ISO 104002007 Identical, Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industriesEquations and calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe used as casing or tubingand Line Pipe Used as Casing or Tubing; and Performance Properties Tables for Casing and TubingANSI/API TECHNICAL REPORT 5C3 FIRST EDITION, DECEMBER 2008Technical Report on Equations and Calculations for Casing, Tubing, --,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---ISO 104002007 Identical, Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industriesEquations and calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe used as casing or tubingFIRST EDITION, DECEMBER 2008and Line Pipe Used as Casing or Tubing; and Performance Properties Tables for Casing and TubingUpstream SegmentANSI/API TECHNICAL REPORT 5C3 Special NotesAPI publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.Neither API nor any of API s employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained herein, or assume any liability or responsibility for any use, or the results of such use, of any information or process disclosed in this publication. Neither API nor any of API s employees, subcontractors, consultants, or other assignees represent that use of this publication would not infringe upon privately owned rights.API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any authorities having jurisdiction with which this publication may conflict.API publications are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineering and operating practices. These publications are not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these publications should be utilized. The formulation and publication of API publications is not intended in any way to inhibit anyone from using any other practices.Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.Copyright © 2008 American Petroleum Institute--,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---API ForewordNothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Standards Department, API, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20005, standardsapi.org.ii--,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---iiiContents Page Foreword .v Introductionvi 1 Scope1 2 Conformance .2 2.1 Normative references2 2.2 Units of measurement.2 3 Normative references2 4 Terms and definitions .3 5 Symbols5 6 Triaxial yield of pipe body 14 6.1 General .14 6.2 Assumptions and limitations .15 6.3 Data requirements .15 6.4 Design equation for triaxial yield of pipe body 16 6.5 Application of design equation for triaxial yield of pipe body to line pipe .17 6.6 Example calculations17 7 Ductile rupture of the pipe body 21 7.1 General .21 7.2 Assumptions and limitations .21 7.3 Data requirements .22 7.4 Design equation for capped-end ductile rupture .24 7.5 Adjustment for the effect of axial tension and external pressure25 7.6 Example calculations28 8 External pressure resistance .30 8.1 General .30 8.2 Assumptions and limitations .30 8.3 Data requirements .31 8.4 Design equation for collapse of pipe body.31 8.5 Equations for empirical constants 37 8.6 Application of collapse pressure equations to line pipe.38 8.7 Example calculations39 9 Joint strength.39 9.1 General .39 9.2 API casing connection tensile joint strength .40 9.3 API tubing connection tensile joint strength46 9.4 Line pipe connection joint strength 47 10 Pressure performance for couplings 47 10.1 General .47 10.2 Internal yield pressure of round thread and buttress couplings48 10.3 Internal pressure leak resistance of round thread or buttress couplings.49 11 Calculated masses 51 11.1 General .51 11.2 Nominal masses 51 11.3 Calculated plain-end mass .51 11.4 Calculated finished-end mass52 11.5 Calculated threaded and coupled mass52 --,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---iv 11.6 Calculated upset and threaded mass for integral joint tubing and extreme-line casing .53 11.7 Calculated upset mass54 11.8 Calculated coupling mass 55 11.9 Calculated mass removed during threading.59 11.10 Calculated mass of upsets .64 12 Elongation 68 13 Flattening tests 68 13.1 Flattening tests for casing and tubing.68 13.2 Flattening tests for line pipe.69 14 Hydrostatic test pressures .70 14.1 Hydrostatic test pressures for plain-end pipe, extreme-line casing and integral joint tubing 70 14.2 Hydrostatic test pressure for threaded and coupled pipe 70 15 Make-up torque for round thread casing and tubing.72 16 Guided bend tests for submerged arc-welded line pipe72 16.1 General72 16.2 Background74 17 Determination of minimum impact specimen size for API couplings and pipe 74 17.1 Critical thickness .74 17.2 Calculated coupling blank thickness.76 17.3 Calculated wall thickness for transverse specimens 77 17.4 Calculated wall thickness for longitudinal specimens 78 17.5 Minimum specimen size for API couplings.79 17.6 Impact specimen size for pipe81 17.7 Larger size specimens 81 17.8 Reference information.81 Annex A informative Discussion of equations for triaxial yield of pipe body 82 Annex B informative Discussion of equations for ductile rupture 95 Annex C informative Rupture test procedure 131 Annex D informative Discussion of equations for fracture 133 Annex E informative Discussion of historical API collapse equations.140 Annex F informative Development of probabilistic collapse performance properties154 Annex G informative Calculation of design collapse strength from collapse test data 188 Annex H informative Calculation of design collapse strengths from production quality data.191 Annex I informative Collapse test procedure.205 Annex J informative Discussion of equations for joint strength .210 Annex K informative Tables of calculated performance properties in SI units220 Annex L informative Tables of calculated performance properties in USC units296 Bibliography 372 --,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---Foreword ISO the International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies ISO member bodies. The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 of the member bodies casting a vote. In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard “state of the art”, for example, it may decide by a simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no longer valid or useful. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO/TR 10400 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, Subcommittee SC 5, Casing, tubing and drill pipe.This first edition of ISO/TR 10400 cancels and replaces ISO 104001993, which has been technically revised. IntroductionPerformance design of tubulars for the petroleum and natural gas industries, whether it is formulated by deterministic or probabilistic calculations, compares anticipated loads to which the tubular may be subjected to the anticipated resistance of the tubular to each load. Either or both the load and resistance may be modified by a design factor. Both deterministic and probabilistic synthesis method approaches to performance properties are addressed in this Technical Report. The deterministic approach uses specific geometric and material property values to calculate a single performance property value. The synthesis method treats the same variables as random and thus arrives at a statistical distribution of a performance property. A performance distribution in combination with a defined lower percentile determines the final design equation. Both the well design process itself and the definition of anticipated loads are currently outside the scope of standardization for the petroleum and natural gas industries. Neither of these aspects is addressed in this Technical Report. Rather, this text serves to identify useful equations for obtaining the resistance of a tubular to specified loads, independent of their origin. This Technical Report provides limit state equations see annexes which are useful for determining the resistance of an individual sample whose geometry and material properties are given, and design equations which are useful for well design based on conservative geometric and material parameters. Whenever possible, decisions on specific constants to use in a design equation are left to the discretion of the reader. --,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 104002007E© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 1Petroleum and natural gas industries Equations and calculations for the properties of casing, tubing, drill pipe and line pipe used as casing or tubing 1 Scope This Technical Report illustrates the equations and templates necessary to calculate the various pipe properties given in International Standards, including ⎯ pipe performance properties, such as axial strength, internal pressure resistance and collapse resistance, ⎯ minimum physical properties, ⎯ product assembly force torque, ⎯ product test pressures, ⎯ critical product dimensions related to testing criteria, ⎯ critical dimensions of testing equipment, and ⎯ critical dimensions of test samples. For equations related to performance properties, extensive background information is also provided regarding their development and use. Equations presented here are intended for use with pipe manufactured in accordance with ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D, and ISO 3183 or API 5L, as applicable. These equations and templates may be extended to other pipe with due caution. Pipe cold-worked during production is included in the scope of this Technical Report e.g. cold rotary straightened pipe. Pipe modified by cold working after production, such as expandable tubulars and coiled tubing, is beyond the scope of this Technical Report. Application of performance property equations in this Technical Report to line pipe and other pipe is restricted to their use as casing/tubing in a well or laboratory test, and requires due caution to match the heat-treat process, straightening process, yield strength, etc., with the closest appropriate casing/tubing product. Similar caution should be exercised when using the performance equations for drill pipe. This Technical Report and the equations contained herein relate the input pipe manufacturing parameters in ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D, and ISO 3183 or API 5L to expected pipe performance. The design equations in this Technical Report are not to be understood as a manufacturing warrantee. Manufacturers are typically licensed to produce tubular products in accordance with manufacturing specifications which control the dimensions and physical properties of their product. Design equations, on the other hand, are a reference point for users to characterize tubular performance and begin their own well design or research of pipe input properties. This Technical Report is not a design code. It only provides equations and templates for calculating the properties of tubulars intended for use in downhole applications. This Technical Report does not provide any guidance about loads that can be encountered by tubulars or about safety margins needed for acceptable design. Users are responsible for defining appropriate design loads and selecting adequate safety factors to develop safe and efficient designs. The design loads and safety factors will likely be selected based on historical practice, local regulatory requirements, and specific well conditions. API Technical Report 5C3/ISO 1040020071--,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---ISO/TR 104002007E 2 © ISO 2007 – All rights reservedAll equations and listed values for performance properties in this Technical Report assume a benign environment and material properties conforming to ISO 11960 or API 5CT, ISO 11961 or API 5D and ISO 3183 or API 5L. Other environments may require additional analyses, such as that outlined in Annex D. Pipe performance properties under dynamic loads and pipe connection sealing resistance a
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