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SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection EngineeringEditor-in-ChiefFifth EditionMorgan J. HurleySFPE Handbook of Fire ProtectionEngineeringMorgan J. HurleyEditor-in-ChiefSFPE Handbookof Fire ProtectionEngineeringFifth EditionEditor-in-ChiefMorgan J. HurleyAon Fire Protection EngineeringGreenbelt, MD, USAISBN 978-1-4939-2564-3 ISBN 978-1-4939-2565-0 eBookDOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2565-0Library of Congress Control Number 2015953225Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht LondonSociety of Fire Protection Engineers 2016This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole orpart of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse ofillustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way,and transmission or ination storage and retri, electronic adaptation, computer software,or by similar or dissimilar ology now known or hereafter developed.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names arempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and ination inthis book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher northe authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the materialcontained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made.Printed on acid-free paperSpringer ScienceBusiness Media LLC New York is part of Springer ScienceBusiness M, P.E., FSFPEEditorsDaniel Gottuk, Ph.D., P.E.Hughes AssociatesJohn R. Hall Jr., Ph.D.National Fire Protection AssociationKazunori Harada, Dr. Eng.Kyoto UniversityErica Kuligowski, Ph.D.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyMilosh Puchovsky, P.E., FSFPEWorcester Polytechnic InstituteJose Torero, Ph.D.The University of QueenslandJohn M. Watts Jr., Ph.D., FSFPEThe Fire Safety InstituteChristopher Wieczorek, Ph.D.FM GlobalThis edition of the SFPE Handbook of Fire ProtectionEngineering is dedicated to Philip DiNenno, who was the editorin chief for the first four editions of this handbook. In themid-1980s, Phil DiNenno, Jack Watts, Doug Walton, CraigBeyler, and Dick Custer had an idea to create a collectionof calculation s for fire protection engineering.From this idea emerged the SFPE Handbook of Fire ProtectionEngineering, which was first published in 1988.No other single event had as significant an impact onestablishing the profession of fire protection engineeringas the publication of this handbook. As Vyto Babrauskas said“The field of fire protection engineering has made verygratifying progress in these last four decades.... The mostremarkable positive achievement I think has been the SFPEHandbook, published first in 1988. ...With the publicationof the first edition of the SFPE Handbook in 1988, all of asudden we could properly describe this as a science-basedprofession.” Babrauskas, V. “Some Neglected Areas in FireSafety Engineering,” Fire Science and TechnologyVol. 32 No. 1 2013 pp. 3548.When they began creating the first edition, Phil and hiscolleagues had no model other than handbooks used in otherprofessions. Phil contributed the leadership, vision, and moti-vation necessary to develop the handbook, and he did so usingentirely volunteer resources. This would be an incredibleaccomplishment for anyone. Phil did it before he turned 35.ForewordThis edition marks a passing of the torch for the SFPE Handbook of FireProtection Engineering. All of the editors of the prior editions except for twoJack Watts and John Hall have retired, and a new editorial team has takentheir place. Additionally, Springer has assumed the role of publisher begin-ning with this edition.For the first four editions, the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engi-neering was published by the National Fire Protection Association. TheSociety of Fire Protection Engineers owes a debt of gratitude to NFPA.Without their encouragement and confidence, this handbook might neverhave existed.With a new editorial team emerge many changes. The chapters relevant tohuman behavior infirehave been significantly refocused andaugmented.Thefundamental engineering chapters have been revised to provide a betterfoundation for the chapters that follow. Many new chapters related to fireprotection system selection and design have been added. The chaptersassociated with fire resistance design have been modified to reflect advancesover the last decade. And, thisedition includesseveral new chapters pertinentto industrial fire protection.The editors owe adebt ofgratitude tothose whom they follow. Continuinga successful endeavor is much easier than launching it.Acknowledgment of Past AuthorsName 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th editionAhrens, Martha J. uni2713uni2713Alpert, Ronald L. uni2713uni2713Atreya, Arvind uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Babrauskas, Vytenis uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Back III, Gerard G. uni2713uni2713Barry, Thomas F. uni2713uni2713uni2713Beck, Vaughan R. uni2713Beever, Paula F. uni2713uni2713Beller, Douglas K. uni2713uni2713Berlin, Geoffrey N. uni2713continuedviicontinuedName 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th editionBeyler, Craig uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Bowen, Jr., Jacob Van uni2713Bryan, John L. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Buchanan, Andy uni2713uni2713Bukowski, Richard W. uni2713Carpenter, Douglas uni2713Chang, Jeremy uni2713Chapman, Robert E. uni2713uni2713Charters, David uni2713Cooper, Leonard Y. uni2713uni2713uni2713Cox, Geoff uni2713Croce, Paul A. uni2713uni2713Custer, Richard L. P. uni2713uni2713uni2713Delichatsios, M. A. uni2713uni2713DiNenno, Philip J. uni2713uni2713uni2713Dodd, F. J. uni2713Donegan, H. A. uni2713uni2713uni2713Drysdale, D. D. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Emmons, Howard W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Evans, David D. uni2713uni2713Fahy, Rita F. uni2713uni2713Fitzgerald, Robert W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Fleischmann, Charles uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Fleming, Russell P. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Franssen, Jean-Marc uni2713Frantzich, Hakan uni2713Friedman, Raymond uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Gottuk, Daniel T. uni2713uni2713uni2713Grant, Casey C. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Gray, Brian uni2713uni2713Griffiths, John uni2713Gwynne, Steven uni2713Hadjisophocleous, George uni2713Hall, Jr., John R. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Harmathy, Tibor Z. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Hasemi, Yuji uni2713Heskestad, Gunnar uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Hickey, Harry E. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Hinkley, Peter L. uni2713uni2713Hirschler, Marcelo M. uni2713uni2713uni2713Hu, Yu-Shu uni2713Hurley, Morgan uni2713Hyslop, J. S. uni2713Iwankiw, Nestor uni2713Jaluria, Yogesh uni2713uni2713Janssens, M. uni2713uni2713uni2713Jin, Tadahisa uni2713uni2713Joglar, Francisco uni2713uni2713Johnson, Peter uni2713continuedviii ForewordcontinuedName 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th editionKandola, B. S. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Kanury, A. Murty uni2713uni2713uni2713Kersken-Bradley, Marita uni2713Klote, John H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Kodur, V. K. R. uni2713uni2713uni2713Kumar, Suresh uni2713Lattimer, Brian Y. uni2713uni2713Lee, K. Y. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Lie, T. T. uni2713uni2713uni2713MacLennan, Hamish A. uni2713uni2713Mawhinney, Jack R. uni2713uni2713McCaffrey, Bernard uni2713uni2713McGrattan, Kevin uni2713Meacham, Brian J. uni2713uni2713uni2713Mehaffey, Jim uni2713Miles, Stewart uni2713Milke, James A. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Modarres, Mohammad uni2713uni2713Morgan, Alexander uni2713Mowrer, Frederick W. uni2713uni2713Mudan, Krishna S. uni2713uni2713Mulholland, George W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Nelson, Harold E. uni2713uni2713uni2713Notarianni, Kathy A. uni2713uni2713Nowlen, Steven uni2713Ohlemiller, T. J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Parry, Gareth uni2713Pauls, Jake uni2713uni2713Phillips, William G. B. uni2713uni2713uni2713Proulx, Guylene uni2713uni2713Purser, David A. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Quintiere, James G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Ramachandran, G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Roby, R. J. uni2713Rockett, John A. uni2713uni2713uni2713Rosenbaum, Eric uni2713Salisbury, Matthew uni2713Scheffey, Joseph L. uni2713uni2713uni2713Schifiliti, Robert P. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Simmons, Robert F. uni2713uni2713uni2713Siu, Nathan uni2713uni2713Stretton, A. J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Stroup, David W. uni2713Tanaka, Takeyoshi uni2713Tewarson, Archibald uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Thomas, Ian uni2713Thomas, Philip H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713continuedForeword ixKuligowski, EricacontinuedName 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th editionTien, C. L. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Titus, John J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Torero, Jose uni2713Walton, William D. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Watts, Jr., John M. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713White, Derek A. uni2713uni2713White, Robert H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713Wickstrom, Ulf uni2713Wolski, Armin uni2713Wood, Christopher uni2713Yung, David uni2713Zalosh, Robert G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713x ForewordMetricationThe editors of the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering haveworked toward the expanded use of SI units for this fifth edition. In someinstances, however, US customary units have been retained. For example,when equations, correlations, or design ologies have variablesor constants that have been developed from data originally in US customaryunits, those units are retained. This is also the case for certain tables, charts,and nomographs. Where equations employing US customary units are usedin worked examples, the results are presented as SI units as well.xiContentsVolume I1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.................... 1Bart Merci2 Conduction of Heat in Solids....................... 25Ofodike A. Ezekoye3 Convection Heat Transfer......................... 53Arvind Atreya4 Radiation Heat Transfer.......................... 102Revised by C. Lautenberger, Original chapterauthored by C.L. Tien, K.Y. Lee, and A.J. Stretton5 Thermochemistry............................... 138D.D. Drysdale6 Chemical Equilibrium............................ 151Raymond Friedman7 Thermal Decomposition of Polymeric Materials........ 167Artur Witkowski, Anna A. Stec, and T. Richard Hull8 Structural Mechanics............................ 255Luke A. Bisby9 Properties of Building Materials.................... 277V.K.R. Kodur and T.Z. Harmathy10 Chemical Kinetics and Fire........................ 325Gregory T. Linteris and John F. Griffiths11 Diffusion Flames................................ 350Ali S. Rangwala12 Fundamentals of Premixed Flames.................. 373Grunde Jomaas13 Fire Plumes, Flame Height, and Air Entrainment....... 396Gunnar Heskestadxiii14 Ceiling Jet Flows................................ 429Ronald L. Alpert15 Vent Flows..................................... 455Takeyoshi Tanaka16 Effect of Combustion Conditions on SpeciesProduction..................................... 486Daniel T. Gottuk and Brian Y. Lattimer17 Flammability Limits of Premixed and DiffusionFlames........................................ 529Craig Beyler18 Ignition of Liquids............................... 554D.D. Drysdale19 Smoldering Combustion.......................... 581Guillermo Rein20 Spontaneous Combustion and Self-Heating............ 604Brian F. Gray21 Flaming Ignition of Solid Fuels..................... 633Jose Torero22 Electrical Fires................................. 662Vytenis Babrauskas23 Surface Flame Spread............................ 705Yuji Hasemi24 Smoke Characterization and Damage Potentials........ 724Jeffrey S. Newman, Geary G. Yee, and Paul Su25 Heat Transfer from Fires to Surfaces................ 745Brian Y. Lattimer26 Heat Release Rates.............................. 799Vytenis Babrauskas27 Calorimetry.................................... 905Marc Janssens28 The Cone Calorimeter............................ 952Vytenis Babrauskas29 Compartment Fire Modeling....................... 981James G. Quintiere and Colleen A. Wade30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires....... 996William D. Walton, Philip H. Thomas,and Yoshifumi Ohmiya31 Zone Computer Fire Models for Enclosures. . . . . . . . . . . 1024William D. Walton, Douglas J. Carpenter,and Christopher B. Woodxiv Contents32 Modeling Fires Using Computational FluidDynamics CFD................................ 1034Kevin McGrattan and Stewart Miles33 Enclosure Smoke Filling and Fire-GeneratedEnvironmental Conditions......................... 1066Frederick W. Mowrer34 s for Predicting Temperaturesin Fire-Exposed Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102Ulf Wickstrom35 Fire Load Density............................... 1131Mario Fontana, Jochen Kohler, Katharina Fischer,and Gianluca De Sanctis36 Combustion Characteristics of Materialsand Generation of Fire Products.................... 1143Mohammed M. Khan, Archibald Tewarson,and Marcos ChaosVolume II37 Perance-Based Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233Morgan J. Hurley and Eric R. Rosenbaum38 Fire Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262George V. Hadjisophocleous and Jim R. Mehaffey39 Engineering Considerations for Fire ProtectionSystem Selection................................ 1289Milosh Puchovsky and Craig Hofmeister40 Design of Detection Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314Robert P. Schifiliti, Richard L.P. Custer,and Brian J. Meacham41 Hydraulics..................................... 1378Kenneth E. Isman42 Automatic Sprinkler System Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423Russell P. Fleming43 Halon Design Calculations......................... 1450Casey C. Grant44 Clean Agent Total Flooding FireExtinguishing Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483Philip J. DiNenno and Eric W. Forssell45 Carbon Dioxide Systems.......................... 1531Jeff Harrington and Joseph A. Senecal46 Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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