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SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Editor-in-Chief Fifth Edition Morgan J. HurleySFPE Handbook of Fire Protection EngineeringMorgan J. Hurley Editor-in-Chief SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Fifth EditionEditor-in-Chief Morgan J. Hurley Aon Fire Protection Engineering Greenbelt, MD, USA ISBN 978-1-4939-2564-3 ISBN 978-1-4939-2565-0 eBook DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2565-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2015953225 Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Society of Fire Protection Engineers 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer ScienceBusiness Media LLC New York is part of Springer ScienceBusiness Media www.springer.com , P.E., FSFPE Editors Daniel Gottuk, Ph.D., P.E. Hughes Associates John R. Hall Jr., Ph.D. National Fire Protection Association Kazunori Harada, Dr. Eng. Kyoto University Erica Kuligowski, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology Milosh Puchovsky, P.E., FSFPE Worcester Polytechnic Institute Jose´ Torero, Ph.D. The University of Queensland John M. Watts Jr., Ph.D., FSFPE The Fire Safety Institute Christopher Wieczorek, Ph.D. FM GlobalThis edition of the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering is dedicated to Philip DiNenno, who was the editor in chief for the first four editions of this handbook. In the mid-1980s, Phil DiNenno, Jack Watts, Doug Walton, Craig Beyler, and Dick Custer had an idea to create a collection of calculation methods for fire protection engineering. From this idea emerged the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, which was first published in 1988. No other single event had as significant an impact on establishing the profession of fire protection engineering as the publication of this handbook. As Vyto Babrauskas said “The field [of fire protection engineering] has made very gratifying progress in these last four decades.... The most remarkable positive achievement I think has been the SFPE Handbook, published first in 1988. ...[W]ith the publication of the first edition of the SFPE Handbook in 1988, all of a sudden we could properly describe this as a science-based profession.” [Babrauskas, V. “Some Neglected Areas in Fire Safety Engineering,” Fire Science and Technology Vol. 32 No. 1 2013 pp. 35–48.] When they began creating the first edition, Phil and his colleagues had no model other than handbooks used in other professions. Phil contributed the leadership, vision, and moti- vation necessary to develop the handbook, and he did so using entirely volunteer resources. This would be an incredible accomplishment for anyone. Phil did it before he turned 35.Foreword This edition marks a passing of the torch for the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. All of the editors of the prior editions except for two Jack Watts and John Hall have retired, and a new editorial team has taken their place. Additionally, Springer has assumed the role of publisher begin- ning with this edition. For the first four editions, the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engi- neering was published by the National Fire Protection Association. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers owes a debt of gratitude to NFPA. Without their encouragement and confidence, this handbook might never have existed. With a new editorial team emerge many changes. The chapters relevant to human behavior infirehave been significantly refocused andaugmented.The fundamental engineering chapters have been revised to provide a better foundation for the chapters that follow. Many new chapters related to fire protection system selection and design have been added. The chapters associated with fire resistance design have been modified to reflect advances over the last decade. And, thisedition includesseveral new chapters pertinent to industrial fire protection. The editors owe adebt ofgratitude tothose whom they follow. Continuing a successful endeavor is much easier than launching it. Acknowledgment of Past Authors Name 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th edition Ahrens, Martha J. uni2713uni2713 Alpert, Ronald L. uni2713uni2713 Atreya, Arvind uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Babrauskas, Vytenis uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Back III, Gerard G. uni2713uni2713 Barry, Thomas F. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Beck, Vaughan R. uni2713 Beever, Paula F. uni2713uni2713 Beller, Douglas K. uni2713uni2713 Berlin, Geoffrey N. uni2713 continued viicontinued Name 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th edition Beyler, Craig uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Bowen, Jr., Jacob Van uni2713 Bryan, John L. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Buchanan, Andy uni2713uni2713 Bukowski, Richard W. uni2713 Carpenter, Douglas uni2713 Chang, Jeremy uni2713 Chapman, Robert E. uni2713uni2713 Charters, David uni2713 Cooper, Leonard Y. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Cox, Geoff uni2713 Croce, Paul A. uni2713uni2713 Custer, Richard L. P. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Delichatsios, M. A. uni2713uni2713 DiNenno, Philip J. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Dodd, F. J. uni2713 Donegan, H. A. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Drysdale, D. D. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Emmons, Howard W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Evans, David D. uni2713uni2713 Fahy, Rita F. uni2713uni2713 Fitzgerald, Robert W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Fleischmann, Charles uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Fleming, Russell P. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Franssen, Jean-Marc uni2713 Frantzich, Ha˚kan uni2713 Friedman, Raymond uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Gottuk, Daniel T. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Grant, Casey C. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Gray, Brian uni2713uni2713 Griffiths, John uni2713 Gwynne, Steven uni2713 Hadjisophocleous, George uni2713 Hall, Jr., John R. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Harmathy, Tibor Z. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Hasemi, Yuji uni2713 Heskestad, Gunnar uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Hickey, Harry E. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Hinkley, Peter L. uni2713uni2713 Hirschler, Marcelo M. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Hu, Yu-Shu uni2713 Hurley, Morgan uni2713 Hyslop, J. S. uni2713 Iwankiw, Nestor uni2713 Jaluria, Yogesh uni2713uni2713 Janssens, M. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Jin, Tadahisa uni2713uni2713 Joglar, Francisco uni2713uni2713 Johnson, Peter uni2713 continued viii Forewordcontinued Name 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th edition Kandola, B. S. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Kanury, A. Murty uni2713uni2713uni2713 Kersken-Bradley, Marita uni2713 Klote, John H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Kodur, V. K. R. uni2713uni2713 uni2713 Kumar, Suresh uni2713 Lattimer, Brian Y. uni2713uni2713 Lee, K. Y. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Lie, T. T. uni2713uni2713uni2713 MacLennan, Hamish A. uni2713uni2713 Mawhinney, Jack R. uni2713uni2713 McCaffrey, Bernard uni2713uni2713 McGrattan, Kevin uni2713 Meacham, Brian J. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Mehaffey, Jim uni2713 Miles, Stewart uni2713 Milke, James A. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Modarres, Mohammad uni2713uni2713 Morgan, Alexander uni2713 Mowrer, Frederick W. uni2713uni2713 Mudan, Krishna S. uni2713uni2713 Mulholland, George W. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Nelson, Harold E. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Notarianni, Kathy A. uni2713uni2713 Nowlen, Steven uni2713 Ohlemiller, T. J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Parry, Gareth uni2713 Pauls, Jake uni2713uni2713 Phillips, William G. B. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Proulx, Guylene uni2713uni2713 Purser, David A. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Quintiere, James G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Ramachandran, G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Roby, R. J. uni2713 Rockett, John A. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Rosenbaum, Eric uni2713 Salisbury, Matthew uni2713 Scheffey, Joseph L. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Schifiliti, Robert P. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Simmons, Robert F. uni2713uni2713uni2713 Siu, Nathan uni2713uni2713 Stretton, A. J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Stroup, David W. uni2713 Tanaka, Takeyoshi uni2713 Tewarson, Archibald uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Thomas, Ian uni2713 Thomas, Philip H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 continued Foreword ix Kuligowski, Ericacontinued Name 1st edition 2nd edition 3rd edition 4th edition Tien, C. L. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Titus, John J. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Torero, Jose´ uni2713 Walton, William D. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Watts, Jr., John M. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 White, Derek A. uni2713uni2713 White, Robert H. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 Wickstro¨m, Ulf uni2713 Wolski, Armin uni2713 Wood, Christopher uni2713 Yung, David uni2713 Zalosh, Robert G. uni2713uni2713uni2713uni2713 x ForewordMetrication The editors of the SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering have worked toward the expanded use of SI units for this fifth edition. In some instances, however, US customary units have been retained. For example, when equations, correlations, or design methodologies have input variables or constants that have been developed from data originally in US customary units, those units are retained. This is also the case for certain tables, charts, and nomographs. Where equations employing US customary units are used in worked examples, the results are presented as SI units as well. xiContents Volume I 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.................... 1 Bart Merci 2 Conduction of Heat in Solids....................... 25 Ofodike A. Ezekoye 3 Convection Heat Transfer......................... 53 Arvind Atreya 4 Radiation Heat Transfer.......................... 102 Revised by C. Lautenberger, Original chapter authored by C.L. Tien, K.Y. Lee, and A.J. Stretton 5 Thermochemistry............................... 138 D.D. Drysdale 6 Chemical Equilibrium............................ 151 Raymond Friedman 7 Thermal Decomposition of Polymeric Materials........ 167 Artur Witkowski, Anna A. Stec, and T. Richard Hull 8 Structural Mechanics............................ 255 Luke A. Bisby 9 Properties of Building Materials.................... 277 V.K.R. Kodur and T.Z. Harmathy 10 Chemical Kinetics and Fire........................ 325 Gregory T. Linteris and John F. Griffiths 11 Diffusion Flames................................ 350 Ali S. Rangwala 12 Fundamentals of Premixed Flames.................. 373 Grunde Jomaas 13 Fire Plumes, Flame Height, and Air Entrainment....... 396 Gunnar Heskestad xiii14 Ceiling Jet Flows................................ 429 Ronald L. Alpert 15 Vent Flows..................................... 455 Takeyoshi Tanaka 16 Effect of Combustion Conditions on Species Production..................................... 486 Daniel T. Gottuk and Brian Y. Lattimer 17 Flammability Limits of Premixed and Diffusion Flames........................................ 529 Craig Beyler 18 Ignition of Liquids............................... 554 D.D. Drysdale 19 Smoldering Combustion.......................... 581 Guillermo Rein 20 Spontaneous Combustion and Self-Heating............ 604 Brian F. Gray 21 Flaming Ignition of Solid Fuels..................... 633 Jose´ Torero 22 Electrical Fires................................. 662 Vytenis Babrauskas 23 Surface Flame Spread............................ 705 Yuji Hasemi 24 Smoke Characterization and Damage Potentials........ 724 Jeffrey S. Newman, Geary G. Yee, and Paul Su 25 Heat Transfer from Fires to Surfaces................ 745 Brian Y. Lattimer 26 Heat Release Rates.............................. 799 Vytenis Babrauskas 27 Calorimetry.................................... 905 Marc Janssens 28 The Cone Calorimeter............................ 952 Vytenis Babrauskas 29 Compartment Fire Modeling....................... 981 James G. Quintiere and Colleen A. Wade 30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires....... 996 William D. Walton, Philip H. Thomas, and Yoshifumi Ohmiya 31 Zone Computer Fire Models for Enclosures. . . . . . . . . . . 1024 William D. Walton, Douglas J. Carpenter, and Christopher B. Wood xiv Contents32 Modeling Fires Using Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD................................ 1034 Kevin McGrattan and Stewart Miles 33 Enclosure Smoke Filling and Fire-Generated Environmental Conditions......................... 1066 Frederick W. Mowrer 34 Methods for Predicting Temperatures in Fire-Exposed Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Ulf Wickstro¨m 35 Fire Load Density............................... 1131 Mario Fontana, Jochen Kohler, Katharina Fischer, and Gianluca De Sanctis 36 Combustion Characteristics of Materials and Generation of Fire Products.................... 1143 Mohammed M. Khan, Archibald Tewarson, and Marcos Chaos Volume II 37 Performance-Based Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233 Morgan J. Hurley and Eric R. Rosenbaum 38 Fire Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262 George V. Hadjisophocleous and Jim R. Mehaffey 39 Engineering Considerations for Fire Protection System Selection................................ 1289 Milosh Puchovsky and Craig Hofmeister 40 Design of Detection Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314 Robert P. Schifiliti, Richard L.P. Custer, and Brian J. Meacham 41 Hydraulics..................................... 1378 Kenneth E. Isman 42 Automatic Sprinkler System Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423 Russell P. Fleming 43 Halon Design Calculations......................... 1450 Casey C. Grant 44 Clean Agent Total Flooding Fire Extinguishing Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483 Philip J. DiNenno and Eric W. Forssell 45 Carbon Dioxide Systems.......................... 1531 Jeff Harrington and Joseph A. Senecal 46 Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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