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I AWS D1.1/D1.1M2015R An American National Standard 美国国家标准 Approved by the American National Standards Institute July 28, 2015 2015年 7月 28日由美国标准学会批准 Structural Welding Code Steel 23rd Edition 钢 结 构 焊 接 技 术 说 明 书 第 23版 Supersedes AWS D1.1/D1.1M2010 取代 AWS D1.1/D.1M2010 Prepared by the American Welding Society AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding 美国焊接学会AWS D1结构焊接委员会 编制 Under the Direction of the AWS Technical Activities Committee AWS技术活动委员会 指导 Approved by the AWS Board of Directors AWS理事会 批准 内部资料 不得外传 Abstract 摘 要 This Code covers the welding requirements for any type of welded structure made from the commonly used carbon and low-alloy constructional steels. Clauses 1 through 9 constitute a body of rules for the regulation of welding in steel con- struction. There are nine normative and eleven informative annexes in this code. A Commentary of the code is included with the document. 本技术说明书包含对常用碳素钢和低合金结构钢的任何类型结构的焊接要求。第 1条章至第 9 条章构成了钢结构焊接技术说明书条例的主体。技术说明书中载有技术说明书性附录 9则和信息性附录 11则。文 件还包括对技术说明书条文的说明。 II Statement on the Use of American Welding Society Standards 关于使用美国焊接协会标准的声明 All standards codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides of the American Welding Society AWS are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of the American National Standards Insti- tute ANSI. When AWS American National Standards are either incorporated in, or made part of, documents that are included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other governmental bodies, their provisions carry the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS standards must be approved by the governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of those laws and regulations. In all cases, these standards carry the full legal authority of the contract or other document that invokes the AWS standards. Where this contractual relationship exists, changes in or devia- tions from requirements of an AWS standard must be by agreement between the contracting parties. 美国焊接协会AWS的所有标准法规、技术规格说明书、推荐规程、方法、分类和指南, 是按照美国国 家标准学会ANSI的规则采用自愿采用的、代表多数人意见所编制而成的标准。当 AWS/ANS标准整部成为或仅部分被包括在联邦或州或其他政府机构的法规文件中时,AWS标准中 的章即便附有法令所赋予的所有法律效力,在这种情况下,对 AWS标准的任何更改,在它们成 为法律法规的一部分之前,必须被具有法定管辖权之政府机构所批准。整体上来说,引用 AWS 标准的合同或其他文件是完全具有法律效力的。在这种契约关系下,对 AWS标准之改变或偏 离要求,必须由当事人达成协议。 AWS American National Standards are developed through a consensus standards devel- opment process that brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus. While AWS administers the process and establishes rules to promote fair- ness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards. AWS/ANS标准是由一个透过多数人所共识的标准制定程序将所有志愿者陈述的各种不同观点加以 汇集并使之达成共识的一种标准制定程序予以制定的。由 AWS管理此程序并建立规则以促进公平 共识的发展,但 AWS本身对标准中任何之有关讯息并不单独地进行测试、评估或验证,以确认标准 本身的准确性或包含在其标准中任何判断的合理性。 AWS disclaims liability for any injury to persons or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indi- rectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance on this standard. AWS also makes no guarantee or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein. 就 AWS本身来说,AW是不承担出版﹑使用或依赖本标准而导致的任何直接或间接人身或 财产伤害或其他任何性质 无论是特殊、间接、衍生性或补偿性所应负的负责。至于在本文中所发 布之任何数据是否正确性或完整,AWS也不作出任何的保证或担保。 In issuing and making this standard available, AWS is neither undertaking to render pro- fessional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity, nor is AWS undertaking to III perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using these docu- ments should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given cir- cumstances. It is assumed that the use of this standard and its provisions is entrusted to appro- priately qualified and competent personnel. 在发布和制定标准过程中,对任何人或代表或实体 AWS既不承诺提供专业的或其他的服务,也不承担任何人或代表或实体本身对他人所应履行的任 何义务。对任何使用这些文件的人来说,是应靠他或她本身的独立判断或在适当的情况下,对任何 既定情况下的做法和合理的注意事项应寻求具有能力之专业人士提供建言。应该说,本标准及其章 之应用是要依赖于那些具有适当资格和足够专业能力人员的。 This standard may be superseded by the issuance of new editions. This standard may also be corrected through publication of amendments or errata, or supplemented by publication of addenda. Information on the latest editions of AWS standards including amendments, errata, and addenda is posted on the AWS web page www.aws.org. Users should ensure that they have the latest edition, amendments, errata, and addenda. 本标准之内容可能因新版的发行而被 取代。而本标准也可能透过修正或勘误表的出版,或辅以出版补遗而被修正。有关 AWS标准包括 修订、勘误表和补遗 之最新版本信息会公布于 AWS网页www.aws.org上。规范使用者宜确 保拥有最新的版本﹑修改﹑勘误表和补遗。 Publication of this standard does not authorize infringement of any patent or trade name. Users of this standard accept any and all liabilities for infringement of any patent or trade name items. AWS disclaims liability for the infringement of any patent or product trade name resulting from the use of this standard. 本标准不允许侵犯到任何的专利或商标名称。本标准使用 者需自我承担违反任何专利和商标权事务的任何或全部权责。AWS不承担因使用本标准而违反任何 专利或产品商标权时所衍生的相关权责问题。 AWS does not monitor, police, or enforce compliance with this standard, nor does it have the power to do so. 美国焊接协会AWS 既不监控、管辖或强制用户须遵守本标准,也不具有这 类的权力。 On occasion, text, tables, or figures are printed incorrectly, constituting errata. Such er- rata, when discovered, are posted on the AWS Webpage www.aws.org. 标准的正文、 表格 或图解在印刷时有时会产生一些错误 ,一经发现 ,均会在 AWS网页www.aws.org上发布勘误表。 Official interpretations of any of the technical requirements of this standard may only be obtained by sending a request, in writing, to the appropriate technical committee. Such re- quests should be addressed to the American Welding Society, Attention Managing Director, Technical Services Division, 8669 NW 36 St, 130, Miami, FL 33166 see Annex N. With regard to technical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS stand- ards may be rendered. These opinions are offered solely as a convenience to users of this standard, and they do not constitute professional advice. Such opinions represent only the personal opinions of the particular individuals giving them. These individuals do not speak on IV behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or inter- pretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substi- tute for an official interpretation. 对本标准所规定的任何技术要求,只有向适当的技术委员会发 出书面申请,才能获得正式解释。此类申请书应寄给美国焊接协会技术服务部主任收,抬头应写 Managing Director, Technical Services Division, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126见附录 N。 然,对于美国焊接协会标准的技术质询和口头意见也可呈递,而这些意见仅能作为方便本标准使用 者而提供,因而不构成专业性建议,且这类意见仅代表特定个体对标准的个人意见,从某种观点上 来说,这些个人并不能代表 AWS,而这些口头意见也不构成 AWS的正式或非正式意见或解释。此 外,口头意见是非正式的,不能以口头意见代替正式解释。 This standard is subject to revision at any time by the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding. It must be reviewed every five years, and if not revised, it must be either reaffirmed or withdrawn. Comments recommendations, additions, or deletions and any pertinent data that may be of use in improving this standard are required and should be addressed to AWS Headquarters. Such comments will receive careful consideration by the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding and the author of the comments will be informed of the Committee’s response to the comments. Guests are invited to attend all meetings of the AWS D1 Commit- tee on Structural Welding to express their comments verbally. Procedures for appeal of an ad- verse decision concerning all such comments are provided in the Rules of Operation of the Technical Activities Committee. A copy of these Rules can be obtained from the American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36 St, 130, Miami, FL 33166. 本标准在任何时候都有可能被 AWS D1 结构焊接委员会进行修订。本标准必须每五年进行一次审查,若不修改,则必须重新确认 或撤销。对于那些能提升本标准之注释建议、增加或删除和相关数据是必需的,均应发给 AWS总 部。对于这类注释,AWS D1 结构焊接委员会将予以仔细审视,注释作者也会得到委员会对其注释 的到正式的响应与通知。AWS D1 结构焊接委员会的所有会议也会邀请注释作者出席,以便口 头上表达其意见。在技术活动委员会运作规程中亦提供了对所有该类解说所做出的不利决定的上诉 规程。本规程副本可以从美国焊接协会获得,地址省略。 V 免责声明 本书的官方版本为英文, 本书涵盖的内容仅提供可用的最佳译文或工作副本交流。个人 对译文不做出任何保证,也不为由翻译不准确或遗漏而导致的直接或间接损失承担责 任。如有任何争议, 一切以英文原文为准。 钢结构焊接技术说明书 AWS D1.1/D1.1M2015R双语版,仅作论内部技术交流。 任何单位及个人不得以任何方式或理由对本技术说明书的任何部分进行复制、修改、 抄录、传播或转为商业用途。 1 Structural Welding CodeSteel 钢结构焊接技术说明书 1. General Requirements 总 则 1.1 Scope 适用范围 This Code contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel struc- tures. When this code is stipulated in contract documents, conformance with all provisions of the code shall be required, except for those provisions that the Engineer see 1.4.1 or contract documents specifically modifies or exempts. 本技术说明书包含了在制作和安装焊接钢 结构上的要求。当合同文件规定使用本技术说明书时,除了工程师见 1.4.1或合同文件特别修改的 或被豁免之章外,本技术说明书的所有章均应遵守。 The following is a summary of the Code clauses 以下是本规范各章的摘要 1. General Requirements. This clause contains basic information on the scope and limitations of the Code, key definitions, and the major responsibilities of the parties involved with steel fabrication. 一般性要求 本章包含了有关本技术说明书的适用范围和限度﹑关键性定义 以及涉及钢结构制作上有关各方之主要权责的基本信息。 2. Design of Welded Connections. This clause contains requirements for the de- sign of welded connections composed of tubular, or nontubular, product form members. 焊 接连接之设计 本章包含了由管材或非管材、构件制成品所组成的焊接连接的设计要求。 3. Prequalification of WPSs. This clause contains the requirements for exempting a Welding Procedure Specification WPS from the WPS qualification requirements of this Code. 免评定 WPSs 本章包含了于本技术说明书中得以免除焊接工艺规程 WPS 评定的相关要 求。 4. Qualification. This clause contains the requirements for WPS qualification and the performance qualification tests required to be passed by all welding personnel welders, welding operators, and tack welders to perform welding in accordance with this Code. 评定 本章包含了有关 WPS评定试验以及按照本技术说明书进行焊接作业之所有焊接人员焊工、自动焊 工和定位焊焊工所需要的评定试验。 5. Fabrication. This clause contains general fabrication and erection requirements applicable to welded steel structures governed by this Code, including the requirements for base metals, welding consumables, welding technique, welded details, material preparation and assembly, workmanship, weld repair, and other requirements. 制作 本章包含了适用于为 本技术说明书所管辖之钢结构焊接的一般制作和安装要求 包括了母材、焊接耗材、焊接技术、焊 接的细节、材料制备﹑组装和焊接返修得要求,以及其他方面的要求。 2 6. Inspection. This clause contains criteria for the qualifications and responsibili- ties of inspectors, acceptance criteria for production welds, and standard procedures for per- forming visual inspection and nondestructive testing NDT. 检验 本章包含了检验员资格评定 及其职责之准则、产品焊缝的认可准则、以及进行目视检查和 NDT无损检测的标准工艺。 7. Stud Welding. This clause contains the requirements for the welding of studs to structural steel. 螺柱焊 本章包含了将螺柱焊于钢结构的相关要求。 8. Strengthening and Repair of Existing Structures. This clause contains basic information pertinent to the welded modification or repair of existing steel structures. 现有结 构的补强和返修 本章包含了对现有钢结构以焊接方法进行改建或返修时,所需的基本讯息。 9. Tubular Structures. This clause contains exclusive tubular requirements. Addi- tionally, the requirements of all other clauses apply to tubulars, unless specifically noted oth- erwise. 管状结构 本章包含在管状结构上的专属要求。此外,除非是有特别注明,否则所有其他各 章之规定均适用于管状结构。 1.2 Limitations 限制 The Code was specifically developed for welded steel structures that utilize carbon or low alloy steels that are 1/8 in. [3 mm] or thicker with a minimum specified yield strength of 100 ksi [690 MPa] or less. The Code may be suitable to govern structural fabrications out- side the scope of the intended purpose. However, the Engineer should evaluate such suitabil- ity, and based upon such evaluations, incorporate into contract documents any necessary changes to Code requirements to address the specific requirements of the application that is outside the scope of the code. The Structural Welding Committee encourages the Engineer to consider the applicability of other AWS D1 codes for applications involving aluminum AWS D1.2, sheet steel equal to or less than 3/16 in. [5 mm] thick AWS D1.3, reinforcing steel AWS D1.4, and stainless steel AWS D1.6, strengthening and repair of existing structures AWS D1.7, seismic supplement AWS D1.8, and titanium AWS D1.9. The AASHTO/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code was specifically developed for welding high- way bridge components and is recommended for those applications. 本技术说明书适用于厚度 不小于 1/8 in. [3 mm]且最小规定降伏强度不大于 100 ksi [690 MPa] 之碳钢或低合金钢焊接结构,本 技术说明书可能适用于控制既定目的范围之外的结构制作,然而,工程师宜对此类适用性进行评 估,且根据此类之评估,将任何对于技术说明书要求所做出的任何必要更改纳入合同文件中,以满 足实际应用程序超出技术说明书适用范围时的特定要求。 焊接结构委员会鼓励工程师考虑其他的 AWS D1 技术说明书,如关于铝材焊接的技术说明书AWS D1.2、厚度不大于 3/16 in. [ 5 mm] 的薄 钢板结构焊接技术说明书 AWS D1.3、钢筋焊接技术说明书AWS D1.4和不锈钢焊接技术说明书 AWS D1.6。AASHTO/AWS D1.5 桥梁焊接技术说明书 是特地为公路桥梁构件的焊接所制定的, 因而建议用于公路桥梁构件之应用上。 1.3 Definitions 定义 3 The welding terms used in this Code shall be interpreted in conformance with the defi- nitions given in the latest edition of AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions, Including Terms for Adhesive Bonding, Brazing, Soldering, Thermal Cutting, and Thermal Spraying, supplemented by Annex J of this Code and the following definitions 本技术说明 书所采用之焊接术语应按最新版的 AWS A3.0标准焊接术语和定义来理解,并辅以本技术说明书之 附录 J和以下定义加以补充。 1.3.1 Engineer. “Engineer” shall be defined as a duly designated individual who acts for, and in behalf of, the Owner on all matters within the scope of the Code. 工程师 “工 程师”应定义为一个经正式指定并代表业主处理本技术说明书范围内的所有事务的个人。 1.3.2 Contractor. “Contractor” shall be defined as any company, or that individ- ual representing a company, responsible for the fabrication, erection, manufacturing or weld- ing in conformance with the provisions of this Code. 承包商 “承包商” 应定义为按照本技术说明 书之规定负责进行制造、安装、生产、或焊接得任何公司组织或者是代表某家公司的个人。 1.3.3 Inspectors 检验员 Contractor’s Inspector. “Contractor’s Inspector” shall be defined as the duly designated person who acts for, and in behalf of, the Contractor on all inspection and quality matters within the scope of the Code and of the contract documents. 承包商检 验员 “承包商检验员” 应定义为一个经正式指定并代表承包商处理本技术说明书和合同文件范围内 之所有检验和质量事务的个人。 Verification Inspector. “Verification Inspector” shall be defined as the duly designated person who acts for, and in behalf of, the Owner or Engineer on all in- spection and quality matters specified by the Engineer. 监造检验师 “监造检验师”应定义为 一个经正式指定并代表用户或工程师处理所有检验和质量事务的个人。 Inspectors unmodified. When the term “Inspector” is used with- out further qualification as the specific Inspector category described above, it applies equally to the Contractor’s Inspector and the Verification Inspector within the limits of re- sponsibility described in 6.1.2. 检验员们泛指 当使用“检验员” 此术语却没有按上述特定检验 员类别进一步限制资格时,则等同于在 6.1.2中所述权责范围内的承包商检验员和监造检验师这两 类。 OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer. “OEM” shall be de- fined as that single Contractor that assume